Of course there are two main ways of producing new plants with differing variations. We can use the seed germination method or indeed take cuttings. Taking cuttings ensures that the mother plant is correctly cloned. Importantly, though the key part of any germination method is having the correct conditions for either propagation or germination. Of course to produce new and healthy plants.
The “radicle” is the first part of seed germination to develop. So, it is the embryonic root that will grow downwards. This is the first thing that I can see when germinating my large Avocado seeds in water. I actually grow these in a small glass of water that suspends the large seed halfway out of the top of the glass. Of course this ensures that I can keep an eye on germination. So, the radicle is the first thing followed by the real tap root. I then pot them up and they turn into a nice houseplant. This is a great way to teach young people about growing things!
The next thing to start growing is the “hypocotyl” which is the embryonic axis which forms the seedling leaves or “cotyledons”. In the case of my avocado this can take a few weeks. Eventually the true leaves will appear and the plant grows away to reach the light source.
Typically all seeds will eventually burst into life when the correct conditions are correct. Good germination rates can be aided with experience from the gardener. For example many seeds are hard coated. This protects the seeds until the correct moisture levels are met. Consequently, the grower can facilitate this by soaking the seed on a damp cloth or tissue paper over night. So, one good example of this is sweet peas.
Sweet peas must be soaked before planting in a warm seed tray with a potting mix or by using an hydroponic system.
Seeds can be helped along
of course in hydroponics there are more up to date methods before sowing your valuable seeds. Many growers will soak hard shelled seeds in a solution of water which includes a rooting stimulator. Such a product comes to mind as “Katana Roots”. Secondly once the roots and sprouts appear then a specific plant food can be administrated to aid instant growth. One that comes to mind is sold as “Shogun Start” which contains very low levels of micro nutrients that a young plant requires when first starting out.
Of course, you should germinate your seeds in a warm and moist environment. Most keen growers will purchase an electric propagator. These are not all that expensive these days and will ensure a good rate of success. You will still need to soak any hard seeds overnight though. However most seeds will easily germinate if soaked between some damp tissue paper before owing the embryonic plants.
In hydroponics many growers will use coco coir as a growing medium and rockwool cubes to plant on the germinated seeds in. These are accepted methods in many different fields of gardening these days.